As part of the preventive program of the Unified Health System (SUS), the Municipality of João Pessoa offers in the Family Health Units (USF), the Polyclinics and the Municipal Vaccination Center, the vaccine that prevents against type C meningitis and ACWY.
The serogroup, represented by the letters that name the types of meningitis, describes the different categories of bacteria that cause the disease.
The main form of prevention is vaccination.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by a virus or bacteria, which is more serious and can lead to death.
“Prevention through vaccination is important, because there is a risk of contracting meningitis in children under five years old, especially up to one year old, but it can happen at any age,” said Fernando Virgolino, a nurse. and Head of the Vaccination Section. of town hall.
In the routine vaccination schedule, protection against meningitis is achieved by doses in childhood, at 3, 5 and 12 months, with a booster in adolescence, at 11 and 12 years.
“Both vaccines are offered by the SUS in different age groups, so it is very important that parents and guardians pay attention to the timing of the application of each dose and return to health services within the time frame for the booster or top-up dose, to complete the vaccination schedule and ensure protection for this group,” he added.
In Brazil, meningitis is considered an endemic disease. Cases of the disease are expected throughout the year, with occasional outbreaks and epidemics. Bacterial meningitis is more common in autumn-winter and viral meningitis in spring-summer.
Data – According to the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SinanNet) of the Ministry of Health (MS), between 2019 and 2021 there were 24 confirmed cases of meningitis in João Pessoa and eight deaths.
In Brazil, between 2007 and 2020, 393,941 suspected cases of meningitis were reported. Of these, 265,644 cases of various etiologies were confirmed, with viral meningitis being the most common (121,955 cases), followed by bacterial etiology (87,993 cases).
Among these, the most frequent were: meningitis caused by other bacteria (40,801 cases); meningococcal disease (26,436 cases); pneumococcal meningitis (14,132 cases); tuberculous meningitis (4,916 cases) and H. influenzae meningitis (1,708 cases).
Also, according to the survey, in the period from 2007 to 2020, the most frequent serogroups were C (8,811 cases); B (2,662), W (815 cases) and Y (215 cases). There were 5,581 deaths, resulting in a total case fatality rate of 21%, and over the period analyzed it varied between 20% and 24%.